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Diffuse Axonal Injury(DAI) is a brain injury, in which damage in the form of extensive lesions in white matter tracts occur over a widespread area. DAI is one of the most common and devastating types of traumatic brain injury. It is a major cause of unconsciousness and persistent vegetative state after head trauma. The outcome is frequently coma with over 90% of patients with severe DAI never regaining consciousness. Those who wake up remain significantly impaired.

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Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) also known as reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS), is a syndrome characterised by headache, confusion, seizure and visual loss. It may occur due to a number of causes, predominantly malignant hypertension, Eclampsia and some medical treatments. On Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain, areas of Edema (swelling) are seen. The symptoms tend to resolve after a period of time, although visual changes sometimes remain. It was first described in 1996.

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Meningiomas are common brain tumours (30% of all primary brain tumours) arise in the peri-menopausal older women. They arise from the meninges or the membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Most meningioma’s (92%) are non-cancerous (Benign) though rarely (8%) a meningioma may be cancerous (malignant/atypical). Many meningiomas are asymptomatic throughout the person’s life and if discovered, requires no treatment other than periodic observation. Typically symptomatic Meningiomas like in our patients are treated with either radio surgery or conventional surgery. They tend to reoccur quickly if not totally excised.

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A bronchocele is a dilated, mucous or pus filled bronchus proximal to an obstruction which may be intrinsic due to an inflammatory stricture, a congenital brochial atresia, an endobronchial tumor, a foreign body or due to extrinsic compression. Recurrent chest infections intractable with medical management and adequate bronchial toileting, is an accepted indication for surgical resection. We describe the case of a young man with symptomatic bronchocele who underwent Left upper lobectomy for a left upper lobar bronchocele. This case was unique in that

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Chronic Kidney Disease is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. One of the most important cause for Chronic Medical Renal Disease in patients undergoing maintainance haemodialysis is Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis which further causes refractory (resistant) hypertension. Atherosclerotic renovascular disease is usually associated with obstructive coronary artery disease in 90% of individuals above age of 60 yrs. Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease, considered as a coronary artery disease equivalent, also frequently accompanies atherosclerotic renovascular disease. Thus atherosclerosis is the most common cause for macrovascular disease affecting multiple arterial territories.

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Diagnostic confusion in an apparently straight forward case of lung cancer which later turned out to be a probable pancreatic cancer.

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The surgical outcomes for hilar cholangiocarcinoma has improved as a result of aggressive surgery and progress in surgical techniques, preoperative management and diagnostic tools.

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In previous times, women with lupus nephritis may have been advised against ever contemplating pregnancy, and there is no doubt that such pregnancies have increased rates of fetal and maternal complications. However, management within an experienced multi-disciplinary environment, with informed pre-pregnancy counselling and optimum lupus control, can now facilitate a much improved fetal and maternal outcome.

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Anatomic ACL gives the patient a much stronger knee compared to the Transtibial technique of ACL Reconstruction. Transtibial technique of ACL reconstruction may lead to some amount of Laxity by the end of the procedure which is never experienced in case of Anatomic ACL as the position of the graft is exactly like the human anatomy.

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